The cost of fame.

The cost of fame.

The cost of fame.

When we watch documentaries, see news stories , or read magazines about celebrities who have “fallen apart” due to fame , we ask ourselves where did they go wrong, what the heck went wrong, how could this happen , and most of all where were their parents ?

Why all the drug addictions, why so many  mental breakdowns? 

As parents in this business we reassure ourselves that would never happen to our child(ren), that we would give them a break when they are burnt out and need to stop. 

“This is like any sport, they can quit whenever. I’ll never be like those crazy stage parents putting my child in any danger. This is different, I am different, they are different. Surely, that would never happen to my child , nope never” But will it ?

I remember when the Michael Jackson Documentary came out, I remember thinking what in gods name were these parents thinking allowing their child to be around this man ? They have to see what everyone else sees, right? No loving parent could ever be so naive to think that this man wanted to be best friends with little kids? What were these parents thinking?! 

Being on the other side of the industry makes me see things from another perspective, it forces me to take the “ mommy goggles ” off and see things clearly. I can almost bet that they saw Michael as Willy Wonka, he was their golden ticket, and if they didn’t take a trip to neverland their children would never see the light of Hollywood land. 

I’m not insinuating that these children were abused in any way, but what I am saying is that grooming was definitely going on, and sometimes the flashing lights of the cameras temporarily can blind parents ability to see clearly and make accurate character assessments.

This business is amazing, and it opens doors to so many dreamers. Those who dream of creating with cameras, or those creating on the opposite side of the camera. Even those like me, someone who loves to make dreams come true. This business can be beautiful and filled with this magical light, but behind the light there are people with ill intentions, hiding in the shadows, offering you and your child(ren) a pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. I know this is a hard topic to hear, believe me it’s harder to discuss. As a team at Sprout we have been contemplating writing this for a very long time, but keep modifying it, and putting it on the backburner, not sure if parents are ready to hear it .

However, the media is just bringing so much to attention to the subject . We have the stories of Howard Weinstein taking advantage of his position abusing children in the industry , you have Kesha suing her producer for sexual abuse, we have the Free Britney movement, Demi Lovato coming forward with rape allegations, the wonderfully talented Amanda Bynes who has been on a downward spiral for years, you have the stories of Corey Feldman and Cory Haim, there even has been countless local child photographers in the area arrested for child abuse. The list goes on and on. It would be against everything Sprout believes in if we didn’t share this. 

In this blog we will go over the signs of grooming. How to spot it, how to prevent it, and how to report it. 

We are here to not only make dreams come true, but to protect the pure innocence and light that our little dreamers hold. While we will go over some sensitive topics we hope that everyone receives this and carefully reads every sign.  Sometimes it’s hard to see clearly when the groomer is grooming you and your child when it seems to benefit your child’s career,  and it’s easy to not want to see things as they are. Imagine yourself outside of your body looking in.  Is it normal that an adult wants to “play” with your child all the time. If it wasn’t a person in the industry benefiting your child’s career would you see this as very odd. Is the risk worth the reward? In my opinion NOTHING is worth the health and safety of a child. 

Sometimes as parents we get so excited about the prospect of our child booking a job ,shooting with a photographer, or wearing a designers clothing that we tend to let or guards down to what we normally might have seen as dangerous. We can’t rely on social media platforms, strangers, or even agents to protect our children. We have to protect them ourselves. As an agent I try to do my very best to stay away from clients that seem well… odd ( for lack of a better word). If something doesn’t sit right I don’t take the job. If someone seems a little strange whether it being a parent of another child or someone in the industry, I do my best to tell parents to stay clear. It’s a slippery slope and I think it’s important to voice when we have concerns or when something seems off.  However, in the end you have to rely on your own gut instincts to make sure you don’t put yourself or your child in a compromising situation.

  I realize this industry is a competitive one . Parents are anxious for bookings and everyone wants their child to make it ! So when a person in the industry shows your child attention it’s easy to get sucked in and the usual red flags get ignored. It’s important to know the signs of grooming and to stay clear EVEN IF IT MEANS YOUR CHILD MIGHT NOT BOOK THE JOB.  Not everyone in the industry has the right motives and you need to always proceed on the side of caution when it comes to your child . A booking is not worth your child’s safety and innocence .  If your child is contacted by a designer , photographer, director, ANYONE you don’t personally know, and I don’t mean know like “ oh I met them on set a few times “I mean really know . Then you need to look them up . Check the internet , make sure someone always knows where your going , and don’t let your children be alone with ANYONE!  If someone wants to meet your child make sure you have someone going with you. Social media is filled with predators! Anyone at any time can pretend to be a photographer, agent, director, designer, casting director etc.. Do your due diligence ! A BOOKING IS NOT WORTH YOUR CHILDS SAFETY.  I have seen many parents contacted by a photographer they never met asking to photograph their child.  Please don’t just meet up with anyone who contacts you because they offer you a free shoot . Anyone wanting to do something for you for free should be looked at with a few sets of eyes.

Most parents would shoot with anyone , go anywhere , and do almost anything for their child to be noticed. Parents don’t want to say no and turn down an opportunity and believe me guys, I get it ! I do ! I’m not saying to turn things down I’m just saying to use much more caution then you have been. Don’t go to someone’s home, don’t leave your children alone with someone , and don’t ignore the red flags! You are your child’s protector. If a random person said come meet me at this location with your child, would you ? If they say they are a photographer or director you would most likely go without a second thought. Just be mindful. How well do we really know a person ? 

I’m going to share some of the signs of grooming from a few articles we have researched. If any of these sound familiar to you please keep your distance and do whatever is needed to protect your children. 

Signs of Grooming : 

1: The offender will pay special attention to or give preference to a child

2: Gift giving of any expense – large or small – is a grooming technique used to flatter children and their families into trusting the individual. Be vigilant. If another adult is overly interested in your child and family, consider this a red flag. Gifts can also be given in potential bookings or jobs. Perpetrators work to gain the trust of parents/caregivers to lower suspicion and gain access to the child by providing seemingly warm yet calculated attention/support. The perpetrator gains the child’s trust by gathering information about the child, getting to know their needs, and finding ways to fill those needs. ” I can get your child booked on a job, I’m designing a dress I want your child to wear , I’ll photograph your child for free”

3: Having the child call them aunt or uncle. Or another “safe feeling” word. When a perpetrator uses a term that in some way makes the child feel they are family ,the child tends to let their guard down with the perpetrator and it gives a sense of feeling safe. 

4: Offenders are often seen pressing boundaries and breaking rules, but are rarely caught in the act of abusing a child.  They might meet up with your child outside of work or at their home. When you see a boundary being crossed, describe the inappropriate behavior or boundary violation to the person who has crossed it. Have family rules about when and how adults engage with your children.

5: Perpetrators will test the limits by starting to introduce touch into the relationship. They might put their arm around the child or asking for a hug to see how the child reacts. They may do this in front of other adults. If the caregiver does not intervene or object, and the child is uncomfortable, it can confuse the child on what type of touch is appropriate. Teach your kids about body autonomy and let them know it’s OK to say “no” to adults. One can tickle the child to act as though it’s fun. Or ask if they want a piggy back ride or ride on shoulders. Let your child know to always say “no, thank you “. They need to know it is ok to say no!

6: The individual will offer to do special things or help the caregivers to gain alone time with the child “ come over hear in this room and let’s paint a picture , or I’ll show you something cool”. Be sure to let other adults know that you do not approve of them being alone with your child without your permission or knowledge. Check-in regularly so other adults know you are watching. 

7: Groomers may rely on mobile phones, social media and the internet to interact with children in inappropriate ways. FaceTiming your child or messaging your child is never appropriate for an adult as adults should not be maintaining friendships with children. 

8: They Become Useful to the Family.
One way abusers work to gain the trust of the family of the child they are targeting is by making their lives easier. “They befriend the child, the family, and other adults in the child’s life,” says Pumo. “They’ll provide the child and family members with opportunities, privilege, emotional support, financial support. It could just be attention in a two-family home when both parents are working a lot of hours. It could be taking your kid to practice and saving you time.” No, this doesn’t mean that every time someone offers to do you a favor have nefarious intent. But it is a common sign of abuse to be wary of and note. 

9: They Want to Be Alone With Your Child
Most adult men, per Cooper, rarely want to be alone with children who aren’t theirs. “I always tell parents: if any adult male wants to be alone with your children, that’s a red flag. Most normal adult men want to be alone with other adult men or adult women.” She adds that if there’s an adult man in your life who exclusively wants to be alone with your kid, to take them to a movie alone or to the basement to play video games , ask about sleepovers ,that might also be a red flag. The same goes for women . Adults do not regularly want to spend their alone time with children. This is one of the most common red flags in potential groomers. While being good with kids and playing with them at a family dinner is no big deal, Pumo says a warning sign that grooming might be taking place or that someone you are around could be an abuser is if they almost exclusively prefer the company of children. “It could be an adult who you notice consistently prefers the company of children, or a particular child over same-aged peers and other adults,” she says. “At a party, is this adult always just with the kids?”

Everyone here at Sprout either had or has had a child in this industry. We get how amazing it feels when someone else sees the talent your child has and offers them opportunities . You want them to feel special, and you want to reap the benefits of this new found relationship. However absolutely no benefit should EVER come before the safety of our children. NO OPPORTUNITY WILL EVER COME CLOSE TO POSSIBLY SACRIFICING KEEPING THEM PROTECTED. There is no such thing as being an overprotective parent in this industry. This was not an easy blog to write as we are aware it might hit close to home for some. However, if it protects one child or one family from a lifetime of pain it was worth it.

What do you mean my kid didn’t book?!

What do you mean my kid didn’t book?!

I totally thought my kid nailed that audition. Why didn’t he book it ?

How many of you have taken your kid to an audition and the client seemed utterly obsessed with your child. It seemed they had the live version of googley eyes when looking at him or her? How many of you have had a casting director practically convince you that your child nailed the audition. How many of you were told “see you tomorrow“ by a client only to never get that call. Are you raising your hands? Yeah, I know. I get it and I’m right there with you.

I think sometimes my talent don’t realize how much I want them to book the job.

Yes it’s a business, but more than that I want you to know how generally happy I am for your child. When I get the call that little Sarah booked her first job, I can’t wait to pick up the phone and hear the excitement in your voice.

It genuinely warms my heart. I know I’m not alone in this. It seriously never gets old for an agent. Its kinda like being Santa every day ,to some extent.

Not really , but you get what I mean.

As good as it feels to give you good news it’s equally as hard to give you the bad news.

So why do some clients or casting directors give our hopes up? Let me start by saying it’s never intentional.

I truly don’t believe a client or casting director would ever be so cruel to intentionally make you think Amber got the job when she didn’t. I’ll explain. Let’s start with the client.

So let’s say one of the ladies on set said “ see you tomorrow “ and didn’t book your child. What happened ? Did little Robert smile funny “what the heck “.

Well , just because a lady on set loved your child doesn’t mean your child booked the job. Anything can happen from the time of casting to the day of the shoot.

For example , maybe they were going to pick your son and another boy walked in later that evening that might have fit the clothes a little better or matched the “ dad “ on set just perfectly,Or maybe they originally wanted a blonde boy.

However , a beautiful brunette girl walked on set and they decided to switch to a brunette boy. There are so many moving parts to a shoot , that anything at all can happen. There are also several people that determine who the final picks are for a campaign.

The lady on set “ loved your child “ however ,there are most likely at least 3 people who need to sign off on final choices for every production.

This leads me to casting directors. Casting directors are normally 99% right about who the client might pick.

However , once in a blue moon the client goes in another direction.

I’m sure the casting director was correct when they told you “you did a great job I think you’ll book it “.

You probably did do a great job, again there are so many moving parts to a production that anything can happen and multiple people need to give final approval.

The best advice I can give you is to congratulate your child on doing an excellent job on their audition and forget about it. If you hear back with good news it’s a welcome surprise. If you don’t , it’s no big deal as you already put it behind you.

I know it’s easier said than done . I’m not saying it’s easy but just go about your life as you would any day .

This business is filled with excitement and can create some really amazing memories. There are times it isn’t easy and we have to learn to handle rejection. Not just for ourselves but for our children .

“ No matter how great talents or efforts, some things just take time. You can’t produce a baby in a month by getting nine woman pregnant “ Warren Buffet

The Ultimate Self-Tape Guide

The Ultimate Self-Tape Guide

This year has definitely been a year that has complety changed how our industry works.

From rules and regulations, to how talent is casted. Nothing has been the same.

I think that if I were to have written this blog year ago, everyone would think I was writing yet another screenplay copying all pandemic movies.

“There is no way that would actually happen.”…

yet, here we are almost one year into this mess, and absolutely everything has been changed to adapt to Covid. Quite frankly, I don’t think it ever will be the same, this may just be our new normal.In a few months (that just happen to seem like a few years) in person castings have become virtually obsolete, Pun very much intended.

While virtual castings may have been what parents dreamed pre-covod, the reality of multiple self-tape request each week has been proven to be overwhelming. Not only for parents, but for Casting Directors and Agents alike. It’s double or even triple the work, if not more.

Parents are being asked to try to replicate what casting office do, and honestly none of us had time to train nor adapt.

Casting Directors know what works. They know how to get a genuine reaction from a child, They have a staff of people dedicated to only making sure they get the best footage possible. The files they send to their clients have always been cohesive and streamlined. They have spent years solidifying a method to provide quality tapes every time.

Now they are relying on you, the parents, to provide the best possible tapes you can.

To be 100% frank, the results have been far from pretty. It’s not anyone’s fault at all, it’s just the hand we have been dealt. 99% of you are not professional acting coaches and videographers, nor do we expect you to be.

To put this into perspective, Lets just say that we get about 100 submissions for one project. That is 100 people sending us at least one tape, if not more per household. That’s 100 people sending via different hosting sites, or text messages, with incorrect file names, and lets not even talk about the video quality. eek.

While we want nothing more than each and everyone on our roster to their chance to shine, we simply cannot hold each persons hand during the very fast paced casting process. We have spent countless hours(and months) trying to whip up the perfect guide on how to completely nail your self-tape castings.

You now hold in your power the ability to completely win over clients and Casting Directors. However, you also power to completely destroy a casting directors impression of you because of one bad self tape. That thought in itself is utterly terrifying.

This is why we took the time to develop our How to to guide to ensure that you never bomb another self-tape again.

In our never before seen Ultimate Self-Tape guide we will cover everything from how to position your camera, how to label your file, how to use drop box /wetransfer, how to dress, how to find the perfect lighting, and everything in-between to completly make a POSITIVE and lasting impression on every industry professional who views your tape.

If you aren’t much of a reader I have included videos, and pictures those who prefer visual guides!

I know it’s so hard to follow every direction (they can be overwhelming).

I will break it down by sections so you can skip through and read up on the areas you most need help with, without experiencing information overload!

For our first blog let’s get down to the basics.

What props/equipment do you need?

Camera

No high tech professional video needed.

Your cell phone/ tablet will work just fine!

Please make sure quality is not grainy when doing your test video.

I prefer the quality of my iPad Pro but sometimes the files are too large, so my iPhone is my go to.

Lighting

Good lighting is key!

It can totally up your self tape game.

Before I dive in to how to make sure your lighting is just right let’s go over a few of our top lighting must haves.

A ring light is probably my favorite light for beginners.

It has a built in tripod for those filming with a phone and most come with a remote so you can control your camera.

Neewer Ring Light Kit [Upgraded Version-1.8cm Ultra Slim] – 18 inches, 3200-5600K, Dimmable LED Ring Light with Light Stand, Rotatable Phone Holder, Hot Shoe Adapter for Portrait Makeup Video Shooting

If you have a bigger budget and would like to splurge on a better light, these LED lights really help disguise any flaws!

https://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/product/1492248-REG/gvm_800d_rgb_2l_800d_rgb_led_video_studio.html/?ap=y&gclid=Cj0KCQiApY6BBhCsARIsAOI_GjZmYHXoRK4pGIcNmBla8UiU9RPhOyyAQ-5LYJwKDetOSIoxrS078o4aAsYnEALw_wcB&lsft=BI%3A514&smp=y

Tripod

Shaky videos should be a thing of the past!

One of my favorite props is a tripod.

No more weak arms and bumpy tapes.

Make sure your phone/tablet is horizontal when filming (we’ll) get into that later.

I prefer to use a tripod even when I use my ring light, it allows me to get the perfect lighting without compromising the angle of your tape.

Tripod for a tablet

T-SIGN IPad Tripod Tablet Stand, Reinforced Mount Foldable Floor, Height Adjustable 360 Rotating for More 7 to 12 Inch Tablets, Carrying Case, Phone Holder, Bluetooth Remote Control

Tripod for iPhone

Phone Tripod, Torjim 50-inch Extendable and Lightweight Aluminum Tripod Stand with Bluetooth Remote Shutter, Phone Clip, Portable Travel Tripod for Photography, Video Recording, Vlogging, and More

Backdrop

My absolute favorite budget option for mamas on the go is the popable backdrop. I keep it in my car for all those last minute self tape requests.

While you can use with a backdrop stand you can just rest against the wall if you don’t have one.

This option works best for small children since you won’t have the awkward out of frame slate shot (I’ll elaborate soon), for adults and older children check out the paper and backdrop stand options below.

Neewer Chromakey Black Chromakey White Collapsible Backdrop Collapsible Reversible Background 5’x7′ Chroma-Key Black/White

Paper backdrop and backdrop stand-

Stains and rips? No big deal!

Just roll the paper down and boom brand new backdrop!

Great option for those who want to try out different color paper options as well!

https://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/product/1508550-REG/savage_1_8618_background_paper_super_white.html

https://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/product/1531896-REG/impact_bgs_s12_v2_background_support_system_12.html

Last item on my list but by far the most important in my opinion!

Stool

Any stool or chair will work, but in my experience kids tape best when they are relaxed!

Especially when multiple takes are involved.

I prefer a stool, because kids tend to lean back and fidget when they have a chair option.

Folding Stool – Heavy Duty 24-Inch Collapsible Padded Round Stool with 300 Pound Capacity for Dorm, Rec Room or Gameroom by Trademark Home (Black) (161263AMA)

Dressed to Impress

While you may think that wardrobe isn’t important for virtual castings/self tapes that couldn’t be further from the truth!

You should be just as presentable on tape as you are when you do an in person casting.

I know this may seem silly for some, but I’ve seen tapes where the kids literally looked like they just woke up and rolled out of bed. While that may be the case, it’s 100% not acceptable to do a tape in pjs 😆

Hair and makeup

While good lighting helps blur imperfections, there is no light that can make sweaty ponytails look polished 😆

So if there ever is a time you must tape right after a soccer practice session make sure their hair is styled and presentable.

Loose hair always is best, but if it’s already styled that’s fine too! If for example your child’s hair is in braids and you will keep them styled in braids for the shoot days don’t bother taking them out. However, if there hair is in braids and you are about to take them out please let casting know and include a picture of how there hair will be styled for the shoot. It’s always important to not change their look too much! Same goes for boys haircuts.

Very light makeup is acceptable but it should always be age appropriate.

A CC cream/ moisturizer, lip gloss, and clear mascara is usually all they need.

My absolute favorite secret weapon to perfect dewy skin

https://www.ulta.com/true-match-lumi-glotion-natural-glow-enhancer?productId=xlsImpprod17161513&sku=2520146&cmpid=PS_Non!google!Product_Listing_Ads&cagpspn=pla&CATCI=pla-683425019412&CAAGID=107718645596&CAWELAID=330000200001284641&CATARGETID=330000200002459488&CADevice=m&gclid=CjwKCAiA65iBBhB-EiwAW253W95NvK7n5DjiaY4sIkS8osvlRiTMdicJ9laP2_ggJ6U4TuzmlhiN2hoCY_gQAvD_BwE

Barely there lip tint

https://www.benefitcosmetics.com/en-us/product/posietintcheek–lip-stain-travel-size-mini?&sku=IB289&SKU=IB289

Clear Mascara

https://www.ulta.com/professional-natural-lash-mascara?productId=xlsImpprod10821046&AID=165159&PID=10078&CID=af_165159_10078_&clickId=VX1U%3At3Y9xyLWyxwUx0Mo3YoUkEWeAwIeXfX2Q0&SubID=&irgwc=1

If your child has dark circles, or blemishes a tiny dab of concealer works wonders!

Boys shouldn’t be afraid to use a little cover up help. Makeup on set is the norm.

Wardrobe

It should go without saying, but PJs and yesterday’s tshirt with a stain from spaghetti dinner should not be worn.

Avoid any colors that are similar to the background you are shooting on.

A cute bright t-shirt and jeans is perfect!

You want to stand out but you don’t want the outfit to distract casting from your child.

When starting out I didn’t know any better and I’d take her to castings in her sundays best.

While big pouch dresses still takeover her closet, I always have a few t-shirt and jean options for self-tapes and castings!

Don’t worry about splurging on expensive options.

Walmart and Target have the best inexpensive lines that are bright and just right for every budget.

Ready to get started?

Not so quick!

Before we dive deeper on the technology side of self tapes let’s go over the basics laws of self tape.

1. Your should always film horizontally

2. There should be no background noise

3. Only the person(s)requested should be on tape

4. Other than the slate and unless specified otherwise the person being taped should look slightly off camera, and not directly at the camera.

•this is especially true for acting videos

5.. Unless specified it is typically taboo to use any props

6.. Good lighting is key

7.. You should always include a slate unless the casting director does not request one.

8.A good reader(person reading lines off camera) is just as important as the person auditioning

9.You should always submit ASAP! Casting directors view as they receive tapes, it is never in your benefit to wait until last minute.

10.Read carefully and follow all of the instructions!!!!

How do I shoot you shoot a self tape audition?

To shoot a self-tape, use a tight frame that goes from your chest to just over the top of your head. (This is called a medium close-up.)

I always recommend sitting down on a stool while your reader is also sitting on a stool at the same eye level. Remember the reader should be SLIGHTLY to the side of the camera.

The camera should also be centered and at eye level.

What is a slate and where do you put it?

If you are asked to slate, make sure to read the instructions carefully. Every casting director wants something slightly different. Some want full-body shots, others tight close-ups or profile shots. If the instructions don’t specify, Film ONLY the slate vertically and the rest horizontally. For the slate you typically want to pan the camera out, and do a full body shot.

• Shoot the slate separately from the scenes.

• Slate directly into the camera.

• State your name, age, role, and agency (and anything else requested by casting).

• Place at the end of your tapes.

With little kids I think it’s really important for the person reading to do the slate as if they were interviewing them. Instead of having the child memorize what they should say, ask them their age, location, etc. They show so much more personality when they are engaged opposed to just reciting back what you told them to say.

What makes a good reader?

While casting is focused on the requested talent, a bad reader can totally be a distraction and make casting skills ahead.

They don’t expect or need James Earl Jones lol, however a boring or monotone voice is not enjoyable for anyone.

The readers voice should not be as loud as the person auditioning but casting should still be able to hear the reader so the scene comes off as real and believable.

Should you wait for a deadline to submit?

While sometimes casting doesn’t send instructions until last minute, you should send in your tape as soon as possible.

Definitely take time and make sure you are sending in your best tape possible, but don’t purposely wait until last minute to send in your tape!

Casting typically goes through tapes as they receive them and can make a selection even before the deadline!

Your best bet is to always submit as soon as you feel comfortable with the material.

Come to the light!

When it comes to self tape auditions your first focus needs to be can you be seen Yes, you can get more intricate with your set up to make it look more cinematic, but it’s going to be viewed for about 2 mins and then they will move on. A poorly lit self-tape is a sure way to have your tape skipped and overlooked! Of course at the end of the day your talent will ultimately be what books you, a quality tape will help get you noticed!

When you’re struggling to submit a self-tape on time, the last thing you want to do is struggle with finding just the right light in your self-tape setup.

Natural Light ( naturally free)

There is no denying natural light is beautiful, but it’s not always an option.
You are limited to shooting during certain hours of the days.
Depending on where your natural light source is, a room simply may not allow for natural light taping. Here are some tips when looking to strictly natural light for your tape.

  • Always avoid any light behind you. Stand directly facing the window.
  • Remove any curtains/blinds that may cast weird shadows on your face
  • Leave 2-3 feet of space between the back wall and you

Ring light ( our favorite budget friendly option)

The Ring adds a glow to the front of of your face and a sparkle to your eye.
We love how it gives an almost airbrushed appearance by evening out any blemishes.

To even up your ring light game we suggest adding two soft box lights to each side of the ring light to take away the harsh circle on the eyes and take away any shadows.

Adding a back light (Secret weapon)
Want to fool a casting director into thinking you know exactly what you are doing?! Lol

Do yourself a favor and add a back light
It creates even more depth in your video, which puts more focus on the person auditioning.
It helps get rid of any shadows that are on the back wall.The back light should be low to the ground and shining up on the wall. You don’t need to go out and buy any expensive lights. A table lamp without a shade will give you the same results!

The back light can be directly behind you or to the side, shining on the wall behind you.

There is no right way, but there will be a right way for you! It may change from day to day, but don’t be afraid to play with the intensity and placement until you find a set-up that works best for you!

How to rename your videos on an iPhone or Android?

One of castings biggest frustration is the amount of videos that are not properly labeled. Without proper labeling you can completely bomb your chances at booking a job because a casting director can’t locate you or locate the tape later. Check out short tutorial on how to rename your files!

Check out our video tutorial!

Is there such a thing as contacting your agent too much?

One of my biggest hopes when I write these blogs for all of you, is that I come across informative. I never want to give off the impression of being critical or condescending. I want all of you to walk away from reading my blogs with a little more knowledge about the industry than you had to start with. I hope that’s the impression I’m giving off. When writing this blog, it was important to me to start by saying my intentions so you know where I’m coming from when you read it.

So is there such a thing as contacting your agent too much? I would say, Yes! First things first, your agent’s personal phone should never be called or texted unless you hear from them first and they are waiting on a response from you. Email is always the best form of communication. Your agent should never be called after hours unless it’s an emergency and your child is going to miss a booking.

As agents, we are surrounded by all types of parents. We have the parents who are easy and take life as it comes, we have the parents that are a little rude, and we have the parents that make sure to call, text, and email at a minimum of once a day. The hard truth is there is never a reason you need to call your agent every day. We always appreciate the enthusiasm, but there is such a thing as too much. Try to remember that we represent hundreds of talent and we need to make time for everyone including ourselves.

The entertainment industry is 24/7 . Clients can call on weekends , in the middle of the night , first thing in the morning , and on holidays . We truly never get down time or a day off . It comes with the territory and we fully expect it . However , during the few minutes of downtime we might get, we need to take a breath . So if you have a question first read my blogs as most questions are answered there . If you can’t find your answer make sure to check that your emailing during business hours , and if so send us an email . I would strongly discourage you from calling or texting . This also goes for the agent’s assistants .

One of the common complaints I get from parents coming from other agencies (and I’m sure some of my parents) is that the agent is short with them and they think the agent is rude. I promise you, I don’t think there is an agent out there that is intentionally being short or rude. We are much busier than you might think. If you have a question, most of the time, I might give a one sentence answer just so you know I’m not ignoring you. I know my fellow agents probably do the same. It’s never our intention to not give you adequate time, we are just so limited on the time we have. That’s my purpose in writing these blogs. I want to have a place where you can read, educate yourself, and feel like you took something away from reading them.

Please, don’t get me wrong, we love that you’re excited about the industry and we are just as excited with you . It’s just important to remember that we are human and we need some time with our families and some time for ourselves. We want to be everything for everyone. I care so much about each and every one of you and want you to feel like you’re not lost in the industry. I’m always here when you need me even if I give you a one word answer 😉

Social Media VS Real life

Social Media VS Real life

This one is for the kids and probably a few moms . It doesn’t have much to do with being an agent and doesn’t offer helpful tips in the industry. This is more for the tween , teen , or even mom facing insecurities while flipping through the “ pages “ of social media .

For those of you not aware I have a 14 year old daughter. I have an 11 year old son as well but he hasn’t yet had to face the pressures of perfection due to Instagram , Facebook , Snapchat etc. I got inspired this morning as I was on Instagram and saw an old friends feed come up . She was once a pretty big model in the industry . She now has kids and makes a small living being an influencer. She also has this magical way of making her life look like perfection to all of us watching. I only bring her up because I know her. I know her life isn’t perfect like the rest of us. What I also know is she was a paid model . This mom was paid to know her best angles. She knows all the industry secrets on how to make her nose look great from just the right angle, how to make her legs look strong, lean ,and long , how to laugh so it looks natural and effortless, how to suck in her stomach just enough to make it look natural , and even how to take her thinner figure and make it look a little curvier in all the right places. I say this because your children and my children are watching her wanting to be her. She has a gorgeous home and a seemingly perfect life. What isn’t posted is credit card debt , saggy boobies from breastfeeding , arguments with her hubby, and unflattering double chin photos . You get to see a perfect face , body , family , house , and life.

Hey you ! Yes you! The one scrolling through insta wishing you had that life . I’m here to tell you it’s not real . Knowing what I know about the industry I think It’s important for me talk about the pressures of perfection. If it helps one child , one mom, one person then it’s worth it. So when you go from page to page and see these gorgeous beings know this … 99% of them are or were industry models . All the you tubers , Instagram models , tick tock kids. They all were models and or actors . They know how to move , pose , and act all just perfectly to make you watch . I have a trained eye I can see thinks you can’t and I know when someone is acting . I watched 3 different YouTube videos of famous YouTube couples playing pranks on each other yesterday . Whether it was pretending they cheated on the other one , pretending they were pregnant, pretending they gave their girlfriend / boyfriend money for a shopping spree. ALL OF IT WAS ACTING . NONE OF IT WAS REAL. Remember they are actors they are paid to pretend and to make you think it’s real . I watched this one couple prank each other pretending they cheated on the other one. The girl took her engagement ring off and got all mad. I read comment after comment of fans feeling bad for her or mad at her fiancé for pranking her. However , I watched this and saw a great acting performance. My daughter saw something totally different . That’s what they are paid for . To entertain you . To make you think all of this is real. Real life isn’t perfect. Real life isn’t made up of the perfect angle. My daughter has watched video after video. She has convinced herself her “ perfect nose “ needs a nose job, her but isn’t big enough , and she wishes to be more like what she sees on Tik Tock . In reality how long can a teen or 20 year old be a Tick Tock star ? What comes next ? What happens when the money runs dry when someone newer or younger comes around . What happens when their “ look “ isn’t in anymore. What’s left is who you are as a person and the real life you created . And are you happy ? I personally took all social media off my daughters phone . FYI I’m NOT a strict parent at all! I just wanted her to love herself without a filter and without comparing her life to someone else’s. I can tell you she’s much happier for it.

This insecurity isn’t just apparent in kids it’s also in adults. One month of watching these accounts and I wanted a tummy tuck , lip injections , fillers, and even a nose job. I NEVER WANTED A NOSE JOB IN MY WHOLE LIFE. I see pregnant moms who had a baby and in 30 days are posting bikini photos of their perfect body before and after . Like what the hell ? I can’t even give birth and gain pregnancy weight any more ? Now gaining pregnant weight is taboo? How can we ever live up to all this pressure. The truth is we don’t ! We turn it off! We live in the present of our own little lives as imperfectly perfect as they are. We learn to look at our faces without a filter and we are grateful for our health and the gifts we are given. We don’t know what’s happening behind closed doors in all these influencers lives and without knowing their truth we can’t honestly want what they have can we ? We don’t have all the pieces to the puzzle . My suggestion is … get rid of it! Take it out of their hands until they are old enough to know the reality that what they see and hear is not reality after all .

When life gives you lemons 🍋

When life gives you lemons 🍋

They say when life hands you lemons make lemonade right ? With this crazy pandemic it’s the perfect time now that everyone is bored to update sizes ! Ok so it’s not quite lemonade but it’s lemons with a little sugar on top lol!

Did you know when a client is looking for a child nine times out of ten they are requesting a certain height not age . Unless it’s a commercial or film . When it’s print they are always casting by size. I know I tell all my kids how important it is to update sizes but I think it’s important to realize just how crucial it actually is . Most of you live probably 30 minutes or more from your casting location . You take your whole day preparing for a casting. Dressing your child , driving down , paying for parking , and sitting to wait for your turn . Do you want to spend a whole day preparing for a casting to be turned away ? Do you want your agent to be upset with you because the client called asking why Johnny showed up to their casting and is 3 inches too tall . Probably not .

Taking 3 minutes of your day to update your child will save you hours of wasted time by showing up to a casting your child wasn’t in size for . I realize a lot of you think “ hey what’s an extra two or three inches ?” An extra two to three inches means a lot to a brand that wants their jeans to perfectly fit a child’s length and your child looks like they are waiting for a flood to arrive .

I get it ! Your excited and you don’t want your child to miss a potential opportunity. However , you risk a lot more by having the wrong sizes in the system . You also risk not being casted for something your child fits perfectly. Sizes matter guys ! Having the correct sizes in the system gives me a smile from ear to ear ( it’s like Christmas) . So take this time where we are all not doing much to log into your agents site and update. Now for my lemonade 🍋!

10 Things you wish you knew when starting your industry journey

10 Things you wish you knew when starting your industry journey

As an Agent ( especially one that is big on education) I tend to think my parents have all the tools they need for the business. Over the years I have realized there is a lot of useful info parents of kids in the business have too that can help guide someone new. Sometimes even better info than I might be able to offer because it’s from a parents perspective.

So what better way to give all the newer kids and parents out there an inside look into the modeling world than from an experienced parents perspective . So I asked a bunch of my moms “ if there was one or more things you know about the business that you wish you knew from the beginning , what would it be and why?” These are their responses . I hope this helps anyone new in the business become more prepared. I know it was pretty eye opening for me 🙂

  1. Debbie says “ When gabby showed interest I had no idea where to go. What kind of pictures did she need. Could i use a regular camera? I would think most parents don’t want to spend hundreds of dollars for a maybe. We were lucky I have a friend who is a photographer But they still weren’t right. It was enough to get her signed but now I see a huge difference from that and what she gets now. There is a huge difference from you taking a picture and having a professional take them. Find out what your agents looking for in the pictures and get them done !
  2. Shannon says “ In size and out of size. I have so many people ask me about getting their child into the industry when they are around 18 months. So when is a good time to start and also to expect down times and busy times. Most babies are in size from 0-12 months but then out of size from 12 months to 3 years old. When they become 3 things start picking up again. I also noticed a lot of older babies that were small for their age booking more. And Big babies don’t usually get booked. You may not want to say it that way (I’m brutally Blunt) LOL. But being a baby in the 99th percentile for weight is not good for baby modeling. You would obviously know more about this than I would but that was the first thing I noticed on set. Also, it doesn’t matter how cute your baby is, they need to be well behaved and can easily go with other people. If they cry every time mom leaves, don’t bother. So Rider was always in the 25th percentile for growth. He wore size 6 months when he was 10 months. He’s 4 now and still in 3t. Anyway, with babies, many are bigger and may wear size 12-18 months when they are 6 months old. Older babies can do more, sit up, crawl etc. So they are more likely to book a 10 month old who can wear 6 months than a 5 month old who can’t do those things yet.”
  3. Alicia says “ I had to learn to not take it personal when your kid isn’t booked from a casting. I use feel like I did something wrong like, not choosing the perfect outfit or maybe her hair wasn’t perfect. Or maybe she didn’t smile enough lol I had all the anxiety while she was just having fun 🙃”
  4. Melissa says “ In my case. Avoid over paying and enrolling your child in Talent Search companies like Barbizon, Talent Auditions. They charge over 3K in classes that are not real classes. They just want you to pay for overpriced headshots, acting and modeling classes. If I knew you could just go directly to an Agency and send your child pictures. I would it have save a lot of money and then been able to invest in real acting classes and photo sessions. 💯”
  5. Jennifer says “ I wish I knew before how fast the castings are done, meaning you can get a call to be somewhere in 1 day. To always be on your toes when it’s time for a casting. It’s hard to plan but when they’re younger and home with you it’s easier. “
  6. Amanda says “ 1) a photographer can make or break you. Sometimes people want to go the cheaper route but that’s not going to benefit you in the long run. You’ll end up needing new photos anyway and spending double what you needed to. It’s an investment. Nothing can guarantee you jobs but good photos will definitely put you in the forefront over bad photos. Also – you get what you pay for 2) when you ask for quick cellphone photos at the house it’s imperative you do them correct and you’ve put out examples. No distractions – accessories good background etc. a quick digital needs to look as professional as possible❤️❤️”
  7. Lindsay “ Something I wish we knew when we first started was how short notice you can be given for castings, self tapes or bookings. You aren’t generally given much notice or time to clear your schedule or find a sitter, etc. The casting can be anywhere from Miami to Tampa (that I know of). Luckily our personal work schedule works great for this business because one parent is always home with the girls and we are almost always available and do our best to make that short notice work. But with bookings, sometimes trying to find a sitter for the other sibling can be a challenge with short notice. Family Self Tapes are also difficult for us. We would love to be considered for family jobs, but we are together as a family once every 3rd day, so when we are given only 24 hrs at times to submit a family tape, that is most likely not going to be the day we are both off together and can’t possibly submit. “
  8. Tessa says “ I wish I had known that although I was allowed to be onset my opinion wasn’t. I remember the first time I was on set, I was singing,dancing, and playing peek-a-boo with my baby until the stylist asked me politely to basically to stop being annoying. I mean I was totally annoying. They have an entire staff dedicated to making the kids happy. A mom who is too involved just stresses everyone out, including the child. Now I look for a spot where kids can’t see me, but I can see them. I get to enjoy the process, not stress out and watch the magic happen. If they need you they 100% will tell you!
  9. Maria says “ So having multiple kids in the biz is crazy stressful. I wish I had known that just because my kid is beautiful and their siblings love being in the spotlight, it doesn’t mean that they do too.I don’t push them to do jobs anymore. It stresses out my son, and he starts turning into another kid on set. I get stressed, the crew gets stressed, and by the end of the day I feel defeated. It’s not worth it anymore, and just not fair for my kid. Know when to let go, and when to sign up for soccer classes instead. Lol !
  10. Angie says “If your child wants to be an actor 1000000% sign them up for acting classes! It taught my kids how to audition like pros, and how to overcome their stage fright. There are so many kids who are auditioning for the exact same role, and a lot of the time have a similar look to your child. It so important to have an edge over some of the other kids. Practice totally makes perfect when it comes to acting.My kids wake up so happy on acting class days!

How to reject rejection!

How to reject rejection!

How to reject rejection :

One of the topics most of my parents are concerned about when deciding to try out the modeling and talent industry is the fear of rejection . They don’t want to destroy their child’s self esteem as we all know this industry can be filled with a lot more “No’s” than “ yes’s”. Totally understandable ! I get it ! These are our children we are talking about and the last thing we want is for them to hurt .

Here is the thing . I have noticed over the last 13 years in the industry that the parents tend to care more than the kids do in regards to booking a job . Kids tend to go to a casting and forget it. All the while the parents tend to be the ones loosing sleep wondering if their child will be picked. Kids have this way of being in the moment. If it’s not happening now they are not really thinking about it. Which can be a really great thing in this business.

The truth is … do you really want your child to book every job? Can you imagine the monster that would create ? You don’t want the opposite effect with a child that books every job and doesn’t learn humility right ? I truly believe you need to hear a few “No’s” so you can really appreciate when you hear a “yes”. There is nothing worse to an agent than when a kid books everything and a parent doesn’t seem excited or grateful because it is expected. We get so excited to call you and tell you about your booking and we want you to be just as excited if not more than we are.

If you do happen to have a child that’s a bit more on the sensitive side ,the best approach is one from the very start . As soon as they are mature enough to understand explain that there are several kids that audition, all the kids deserve it , but the director can only choose one or so . Explain to your child that it doesn’t mean your not great but they might want a child a certain age , height , or a child that matches a “parent “ exactly . I would also recommend not bringing it up again after the audition. Like I said most kids have a short attention span and will forget 20 minutes after leaving the audition.

Rejection is part of human nature . Whether it’s a job , partner , friend , sport , or this industry , it comes with the territory of life. It makes for a well rounded individual. I realize we all want to shelter our kids from rejection as it’s part of our nature as parents to protect our kids from any pain . Remember you want the victory to mean something and it can’t mean something without a few bumps in the road . I promise you , you feel the bumps more than your children do . I also promise it will mean that much more when they do finally get the job.

I understand as parents we worry and that’s ok. My greatest advice is to forget the audition as soon as you walk out the door and your child will too. They are not as fragile as we think they are and you’re making a stronger individual in the long run .

How to increase your chances of booking during Covid-19?

How to increase your chances of booking during Covid-19?

For months there was a huge unknown regarding the entertainment industry.
All the major industry hubs were at a standstill due to Covid-19.
Directors, Agents, Producers, Creatives, Actors, Casting Directors, (just to name a few )were left with no answers as to when they would ever receive a paycheck. Even worse how would the industry would ever continue. Could things ever go back to normal? As of now everyone is adapting to our new normal. Even with so much uncertainty, we are still as an industry getting more and more emails from parents concerned they are missing out on the next big gig. We can’t guarantee that you will be as busy as before, we have no way in knowing when or how often castings will be coming in. We can guarantee that everyone who fits the project specs is being submitted. It is ultimately up to the Clients, and Casting Directors as to who will be seen, and selected.
Virtual Casting’s are beginning to come in via Skype, and Zoom. We are having more Direct Bookings than usual. Safety precautions are in place, and Waivers are being signed. Not everyone is comfortable working while Covid-19 is still a threat. So make sure if you are not, you block-out all your dates until you are.
This is such a new territory for all the working pieces of a production. If you think organizing a shoot was tough before, just imagine now. So let’s increase your chances of being asked to audition, while helping everyone involved in the casting and selection process easier.
Here is our blog on how to dominate at Virtual Castings!


Headshots

Check out our blog on headshots!


A constant theme in our blogs!
Headshots, headshots headshots.
This is the most important when you are looking to be noticed, even more so now than ever before.
Casting Directors and production companies are almost exclusively relying on Virtual and Direct bookings.
If you want to stand out, you simply cannot have a photo you took on a cellphone 2 years ago in a dimly lit bathroom. Photographers are starting to do headshot sessions. Start making your appointments!
Contact your agency for a list of their recommend photographers.
Stats


UPDATE YOUR STATS!
This shouldn’t be something your agency has to remind you about.
It is your job to keep up with any changes in height and sizes.
With so many direct bookings happening, clients are relying on sizes being accurate.
You can’t be upset if your child isn’t booking if they are 7 years old, and their profile says they are wearing a 4t, 32 inches tall, and in a size 5 shoe.
Clients get so upset if they direct book a kid based off of their stats and end up being a completely different size. It makes your agent look bad, and you probably ruined your chance of ever being booked by that client again.


Zoom/Skype
Step 1: have your Skype and Zoom accounts created and ready to go.
Simple as that lol.
Some clients ask to have your Skype account listed one your Casting Networks profiles, so have that done before your agent even asks.
“Your very own at home Casting Office”
Some people don’t see this as important, but as an agency we believe it’s soooo important to have this upper hand.
When you go into a casting office you almost always are in front of a backdrop, have bright lights in your face, and have a camera set up in a tripod (for video) , or a photographer on the floor getting the perfect angles.
While it may be Virtually (pun not intended) impossible to recreate something it took casting professionals years to learn, and perfect… you can do our best to show them you take this seriously.
Here is a list of our Virtual Casting must-haves:


Backdrop
Blue is industry standard for Self-tapes, and Videos while white is more standard for Print. Determine which is your niche and buy accordingly.
Superior Seamless Photography Background Paper, 11 Royal Blue (53 inches Wide x 18 feet Long) https://www.amazon.com/dp/B078P6T3TN/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_tai_nL73Eb68BGMPY
Huamei Seamless Photography Background Paper, Photo Backdrop Paper (4.4×16 Feet, Arctic White) https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07FD2P4FW/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_tai_6L73EbAYJZYYN
Backdrop Stand-
Emart 8.5 x 10 ft Photo Backdrop Stand, Adjustable Photography Muslin Background Support System Stand for Photo Video Studio https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07FY4TVKH/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_tai_NM73EbEWPCD9J

Lighting
We recommend a simple ring light. Most ring lights feature a built-in Tri-pod for your smart phone.
You can add some box light for even more lighting but that’s entirely up to you!
Neewer Ring Light Kit:18″/48cm Outer 55W 5500K Dimmable LED Ring Light, Light Stand, Carrying Bag for Camera,Smartphone,YouTube,Self-Portrait Shooting, Black, Model:10088612 https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01LXDNNBW/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_tai_oO73EbH6SBA27
MOUNTDOG Softbox Lighting Kit 20″X28″ Professional Photography Photo Studio Light Equipment with 2pcs 95W E27 Socket 5500K Video Lighting Bulb for Filming Portraits Shoot https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07G3423NQ/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_tai_VO73Eb9H1XGF0
Mic-
Being that we focus almost primarily on children, we know houses with kids get a little noisy.
These microphones work great to cancel out any noise.
Video Microphone with Adapter – Unidirectional On-Camera Microphone for iPhone – Directional Cardioid iPhone Microphone for Video Recording https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07FDYXBQZ/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_tai_aQ73EbZ7JPCS6


Preparation/filming
We always recommend ongoing training.
Many coaches are offering virtual classes. Make sure to contact your agency for recommendations.
Less is always more when it comes to what casting directors/ clients look for. Like we always say, if their are no character/wardrobe instructions, be as blank of a canvas as you can. Let your talent speak louder than your outfit. Simple everyday clean attire (no pj’s though lol ) is usually expected. Extremely light to no make-up.
Camera should ALWAYS be horizontal when filming any video/ Skype/ Zoom unless specified.
Sides-
If you have sides. Have them memorized. It’s important to be engaged and not reading them off a paper. Make sure your reader also is prepared, and expressive.
You should not make direct contact to the camera if preforming sides. You should look slightly off camera.
Slate-
Your slate should be at the front of your tape.
Usually you include:
Full name
Age
Height
Location
Agency
Some projects will request specific information to be included.

Be on time! Always! If your Casting Director is not on time, be prepared the entire wait time as you would at an in person casting.
Try to minimize any distractions and outside noise.
Make sure you read notes for any props, or information you may need.



It’s going to take time for anyone in the industry to even imagine going back to normal, and until then it’s up to you to do your part in making the new normal, ok.
It’s not ideal for anyone, but together we can create new opportunities, content, and memories.
2020 is definitely one for the books. By following our guide you will have a much higher chance in securing a spot in a Casting Directors book. Together we will get through this. We can’t wait to see your home office set ups! Be sure to tag us once you have yours complete.

Sprout en Español

Sprout en Español

Cómo convertir el sueño de tu hijo en realidad: actores y modelos infantiles de habla Hispana

Guía para principiantes
Por donde sea que miremos, hay anuncios y comerciales promocionando algún producto o servicio. Si prestas atención a los carteles publicitarios que inundan las calles o a los comerciales de televisión, te darás cuenta que hay una enormidad de niños actores y modelos que trabajan en estas campañas.

Si estás leyendo este blog, seguramente quieres saber cómo hacer para que tu hijo ingrese en el medio y se convierta en la cara de una de estas empresas. Aunque puede parecer un sueño inalcanzable, la realidad es que si tienes un chiquito extrovertido y talentoso que le gusta actuar acá en el sur de la Florida existen muchas oportunidades de trabajo siempre y cuando logres meterlo en una buena agencia que lo represente.

Si tu chiquito además habla español fluido entonces tiene aún más posibilidades de triunfar ya que son cada vez más los clientes que buscan talentos infantiles latinos (de entre 5 y 12 años) con buen dominio del idioma.

Es por esto que Sprout Kids Agency, la principal agencia de talento infantil del Sur de la Florida ha decidido expandirse con la apertura de Sprout en Español, un sector que cuenta exclusivamente con niños y familias latinas.

Que buscamos?

Sprout no busca niños ni familias perfectas, sino personas talentosas y reales que representen la diversidad del mundo en el que vivimos. Así que si tu hijo o hija siempre soñó con estar frente a las cámaras no dudes en mandar su aplicación y recuerda que muchas empresas como Disney buscan familias reales para sus comerciales. Así que esto se podría convertir en un gran negocio para toda la familia.

Te estarás preguntando: “¿ dónde y cómo aplico?”. Tranquilo que es muy sencillo siguiendo nuestra guía.

Primer Paso: Busca en internet una agencia en tu ciudad o en alguna ciudad vecina que te guste. Mira su página web y redes sociales para conocer bien sus trabajos anteriores, cuales son las marcas con las que ha trabajado y qué tipo de niños representa.

Como Aplicar

Segundo Paso: Envía tu aplicación. Si quieres formar parte de Sprout en Español ingresa a www.sproutkidsagency.com. Ahi llenas el formulario y en aproximadamente una semana estarás recibiendo una respuesta si estamos interesados en trabajar contigo. Si no fuiste contactado, puedes volver a mandar tu aplicación con nuevas fotos para ser considerado nuevamente. No se aceptan solicitudes por Instagram ni facebook.

Tomate el tiempo de mirar la página web. No sólo para conocernos en cuanto a experiencia y trabajos, sino también para asegurarte de que somos lo que buscas para representar a tu hijo.